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Patrick S. O'Donnell

Thank you for the links. I have read the brief by Tribe, Colb, and Dorf and will look at the rest of the material later, as the one I shared from Nussbaum was simply illustrative of the kinds of problems and questions that arise more generally, thus I did not go into all the possible arguments, responses, etc. As for the AZA, that is a comparative judgment, as one might think of all those zoos and aquariums (the overwhelming majority) who are not members and thus are not bound to any formal commitments in this regard whatsoever. In this case I hold to the maxim that something is better than nothing and at least the Detroit Zoo retained its accreditation. And as I am against zoos in principle, I will find myself critical of the AZA on this or that, for example and especially, the exhibition of elephants at a zoo that is far smaller than, say, a national reserve park or a properly sized and humane sanctuary. Again, thanks for commenting and providing our readers with informative had helpful material related to our topic.

Kevin Schneider

Thank you for this. If you have not done so already, might I suggest reviewing the other amicus briefs in Happy's case, both for and against her right to bodily liberty (all are available here in chronological order: https://www.nonhumanrights.org/client-happy/). I would flag in particular the brief of Catholic theologians in support, as well as another by Buddhist theologians. I would also take notice of those amicus briefs filed against Happy's case, in particular that of the Association of Zoos & Aquariums (which will be posted as soon as the court accepts it); I think you will find that their reputation for "upholding the highest standards" is indeed undeserved. Note also that the AZA threatened to revoke the certification of the Detroit Zoo when it decided to close its elephant exhibit on ethical grounds and sent its elephants to sanctuary almost 20 years ago (https://www.nbcnews.com/id/wbna6058403).

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