Judge Joseph L. Tauro of the District Court of Massachusetts ruled that the federal Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) violates the constitution by prohibiting the federal government from recognizing same-sex marriages that are valid under state law. In one opinion, he ruled that the law violates the Tenth Amendment by intruding on areas reserved to the states, noting that family law (including the law of marriage) has traditionally been regulated by state law and not federal law. Commonwealth v. U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, 2010 WL 2695668 (D. Mass. 2010). In a separate opinion, he ruled that DOMA violates the equal protection clause because the government could not provide any rational basis for failing to recognize same-sex marriages. Gill v. Office of Personnel Management, 2010 WL 2695652 (D. Mass. 2010).